What is the Difference Between 3-axis, 4-axis and 5-axis in CNC

  • What are their respective advantages? Which type should you choose?
    3-axis CNC machining: generally refers to three different directions of linear motion axis, such as up and down, front and back, left and right. Three-axis can only process one face at a time, which is suitable for processing some disc parts.
    4-axis CNC machining: add a rotation axis on the 3 axis, generally 360 ° rotation on the horizontal plane. But it can't rotate at high speed. It is suitable for machining some box parts.
    5-axis CNC machining: there is another rotation axis on the 4 axis, which is generally 360 ° rotation on the vertical plane. The 5 axis can be fully processed, which can realize one-time clamping, reduce the clamping cost, and reduce the scratch and bruise of products. It is suitable for machining some parts with multi-position pores and planes, and high machining accuracy requirements, especially the parts with strict shape machining accuracy requirements.

    Although the advantages of five-axis are very prominent compared with 4 axis and three-axis, not all products are suitable for five-axis processing, and those suitable for three-axis processing are not necessarily suitable for 5 axis processing. If the original three-axis products can be processed with 5 axis processing, it will not only increase the cost, but also the effect is not necessarily good. Only reasonable arrangement, for the product, to develop the appropriate machine tools, so as to play out the value of the machine itself. The most effective machining surface of the machining center (three-axis) is the top surface of the workpiece. With the help of a rotary table, a horizontal machining center can only complete four sides of the workpiece. At present, the machining center is developing in the direction of 5 axis control. One time clamping can complete the machining of pentahedron. If the five-axis linkage high-end CNC system is configured, it can also complete the high-precision machining of complex space surface.

    How to distinguish the machine tool is 3-axis, 4-axis or 5-axis
    1. Vertical machining center: X, y, Z three-axis commonly used, plus a table fourth axis or four, five axis rotating head, this is the most vertical five axis no linkage.

    2. CNC lathe: X and Z axes are commonly used, and there is a c axis (the axis rotating with the spindle) in the turning and CNC milling center.

    3. CNC flat grinding: X, y, Z three axis commonly used, plus the correction device will have another two axis.

    4. CNC cylindrical grinding: X, y, Z three axis plus dresser 1-2 axis.

    5. CNC curve grinding: X, Z, C three-axis commonly used, can grind inside and outside cam curve.

    6. CNC Crankshaft Grinding: X, Z, C three axis plus 1-2 correction axis.

    7. CNC tool grinding: X, Z, C commonly used three-axis plus u, W, J, d a total of 7 axes, worth 12 million high-precision tool grinding.

    With the different machine tool manufacturers and the different nature of the special machine, the naming of each axis is different, but the name of 3-5 axis of general machine tool is the same.

    Three axes, x, y, Z, four and five axes, x, y, a, B, C and X, y, Z are length, width and height respectively. Adding an axis to Z axis and rotating axis is a axis (angle). First of all, if you can do linear movement or rotating action, you can calculate an axis. If you can interpolate between axes, it is called linkage. Interpolation between two axes is called two axes linkage, and simultaneous interpolation of three axes is called three axes linkage.